Engineering

introductory quantum mechanics Ch1Prblm5

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Engineering Electromagnetics 8th Edition by William H Hayt John A Buck Soltuion 10.36

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IMPORTANCE OF SWING BUS

The slack or swing bus is usually a PV-bus with the largest capacity generator of the given system connected to it. The generator at the swing bus supplies the power difference between the “specified power into the system at the other buses” and the “total system output plus losses”. Thus swing bus is needed to…

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FUNCTIONS OF SCADA SYSTEMS

A SCADA System typically provides the following functions: • Comprehensive monitoring of primary and secondary plant • Secure control of primary plant • Supervision of secondary plant • Operator controlled display of non-SCADA data • Alarm management • Event logging • Sequence of events recording • Trend recordingAll functions must be provided with a high…

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ACTIVE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS (ENERGY SOURCES)

An active two-terminal element that supplies energy to a circuit is a source of energy. An ideal voltage source is a circuit element that maintains a prescribed voltage across the terminals regardless of the current flowing in those terminals. Similarly, an ideal current source is a circuit element that maintains a prescribed current through its…

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KIRCHHOFFS LAWS

As the network becomes complex, application of Ohm’s law for solving the networks becomes tedious and hence time consuming. For solving such complex networks, we make use of Kirchhoff’s laws. Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887), an eminent German physicist, did a considerable amount of work on the principles governing the behaviour of electric circuits. He gave his…

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LINE LOADABILITY IN AC LINES

In order to prevent over voltages at light loads, it is necessary to have devices for absorbing reactive power (like shunt reactors) not only at either end of a long line but even at intermediate points. Generators connected at the ends of the line have limited reactive power absorption capability as defined by their capability…

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FACTORS LIMITING POWER FLOW THROUGH TRANSMISSION LINE

It depends on what is limiting the power flow and how much of an increase is needed to solve the problem. In most circumstances, power flow limits are the result of concerns over electrical phase shift, voltage drop or thermal effects in lines, cables or substation equipment.SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING LIMITSAs power flows along a transmission…

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COMPARISON BETWEEN STATCOM AND SVC

The main difference between a STATCOM and an SVC is the way they operate: a STATCOM works as a controllable voltage source while an SVC works as a dynamically controllable reactance connected in parallel.Compared with an SVC, a STATCOM offers the possibility of feeding the grid with the maximum available reactive current even at low…

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FREQUENCY CONTROL IN AN ISLANDING SYSTEM AND IN INTERCONNECTED SYSTEMS

A power system can be referred to as an islanding system when it is disconnected from other systems and does not exchange power through tie-lines.Due to the fact that frequency is the same within the entire system, frequency control in an islanding system can be achieved in a relatively simple way. The turbine speed governors…

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PRIMARY SECONDARY AND TERTIARY FREQUENCY CONTROL

PRIMARY CONTROL:Primary control consists of changing a generating unit’s power versus the frequency, according to its static generation characteristic as determined by the speed governor settings.The objective of primary control is to re-establish a balance between generation and demand within the synchronous area at a frequency different from the nominal value. This is done at…

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