Engineering

Different Type of Lamps for Luminous

Introduction: Artificial luminous radiation can be produced from electrical energy according to two principles: Incandescence: It is the production of light via temperature elevation. The most common example is a filament heated to white state by the circulation of an electrical current. The energy supplied is transformed into heat by the Joule effect and into…

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Overhead Conductors

Types of Overhead Conductors   Properties of Overhead Bare Conductors: Current Carrying Capacity Strength Weight Diameter Corrosion Resistance Creep Rate Thermal Coefficient of Expansion Fatigue Strength Operating Temperature Short Circuit Current/Temperature Thermal Stability Cost Categories of Overhead Conductors: Homogeneous Conductors: Copper AAC( All Aluminum Conductor) AAAC (All Aluminum Alloy Conductor) The core consists of a single…

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MCB/MCCB/ELCB/RCCB

MCB/MCCB/ ELCB /RCBO/ RCCB: MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) Rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker): Rated current up to 1000 A. Trip current may be adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Air Circuit Breaker: Rated current up to 10,000 A. Trip characteristics often…

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Harmonics and It’s Effects

What is Harmonics?. Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies that are whole multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate (e.g. 50Hz or 60 Hz). Harmonics are simply a technique to analyze the current drawn by computers, electronic ballasts, variable frequency drives and other equipment which have modem…

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Automatic Power Factor Correction

What is Power Factor? Power Factor Definition: Power factor is the ratio between the KW and the KVA drawn by an electrical load where the KW is the actual load power and the KVA is the apparent load power. It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output…

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Vibration Damper in Transmission Line

Vibration Damper in Transmission Line: Wind-induced vibration of overhead conductors is common worldwide and can cause conductor fatigue Near a hardware attachment. As the need for transmission of communication signals increase, many Optical Ground Wires(OPWG) are replacing traditional ground wires. In the last twenty years All Aluminum Alloy Conductors (AAAC) have been a popular choice…

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Electrical Clearance in Substation

Minimum Clearance in Substation: Voltage Highest Voltage Lighting Impulse Level (Kvp) Switching Impulse Level (Kvp) Minimum Clearance Safety Clearance(Mt) Ground Clearance(Mt) Phase-Earth Phase-Phase 11KV 12KV 70   0.178 0.229 2.600 3.700 33KV 36KV 170   0.320 0.320 2.800 3.700 132KV 145KV 550   1.100 1.100 3.700 4.600 650   1.100 1.100 2.700 4.600 220KV 245KV…

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Minimum Acceptable Specification of C.T & P.T for Metering

Min. Acceptable Specification of Current Transformer for Metering: Sr. No Particulars 11 kV 33 kV 132 kV 220 kV  1 Highest System Voltage (kV rms) 12 36 145 245 2 CT ratio. 2000-1000/1-1 800-400/1-1 400/1-1 800/1-1 1600-800/1-1 600-300/1-1     1200-600/1-1 400-200/1-1     800-400/1-1 300-150/1-1     600-300/1-1 100-50/1-1     400-200/1-1    …

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Typical Limiting Values of SubStation Equipments.

Typical Limiting Values of Sub Station Electrical Equipments. 1. Transformer / Reactor: Sr. No. Equipment / test data Permissible limits Reference A) Transformer oil     a) BDV     -At the time of first charging 600 kV (Gap – 2.5 mm) – Minimum IS – 1866 -During O&M 50 kV (Gap – 2.5 mm)…

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Lighting Arrester

Lighting and Voltage Surge Lightning can create voltage surges in several of the following ways. Lightning can score a direct hit on your house. It can strike the overhead power line which enters your house, or a main power line that is blocks away from your home. Lightning can strike branch circuitry wiring in the…

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Standard Makes for Electrical Equipments

Standard Makes for Electrical Equipments: Sr. No. Item IS No. Makes 1 Transformer IS: 2026/1977 Crompton Greaves, NGEF, Kirloskar, BHEL, Andrewyule, Bharat Bijlee, Alsthom, ABB, Voltamp, Siemens, GEC, Voltas, TELK 2 11 kV/HT Vacuum Circuit Breaker, SF-6/11kV gas filled Circuit Breaker IS: 3427 for VCB GEC, Siemens, Andrew yule, Crompton Greave, Alsthom(Areva), Jyoti, ABB, BHEL,…

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Power Quality

Power Quality: In the present scenario of power utilization and consumption, the importance of power quality is vital for a continuous and effective power supply. The features of power quality play a major role in the effective power utilization along with the control & improvement measures for various factors affecting it. Power quality is defined…

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Electrical Motor Connection

ELECTRICAL MOTOR CONNECTION:   How to Change Rotation of Motor in Clockwise Direction No Present Motor Connection: Change Direction in Clockwise 1 R Phase Connected to U1 W2 R Phase Connected to U1 V2 Y Phase Connected to V1 U2 Y Phase Connected to V1 W2 B Phase Connected to W1 V2 B Phase Connected…

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Ferranti Effect

What is Ferranti Effect A long transmission line draws a substantial quantity of charging current. If such a line is open circuited or very lightly loaded at the receiving end, Receiving end voltage being greater than sending end voltage in a transmission line is known as Ferranti effect. All electrical loads are inductive in nature…

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What is Corona Effect

Introduction: One of the phenomena associated with all energized electrical devices, including high-voltage transmission lines, is corona. The localized electric field near a conductor can be sufficiently concentrated to ionize air close to the conductors. This can result in a partial discharge of electrical energy called a corona discharge, or corona.   What is Corona?  Electric…

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